Goals Under Scrutiny
1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance
1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
1.A Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
1.B Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions
Why does SDG1 matter to local governments?
SDG 1 takes a multi-dimensional view of poverty and therefore requires multiple, coordinated responses. Local governments are in the ideal position to identify people living in poverty on the ground, and to target resources and services to help them escape it.
Our responsibilities for local basic services, such as water and sanitation, make us key partners in the achievement of SDG1. We can also play a role by developing local economic development strategies to create jobs and raise incomes, and by building the resilience of our communities to shocks and disasters.
2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.
2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.
2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.
2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.
2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
2.A Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries.
2.B Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round.
2.C Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility.
Why does SDG2 matter to local governments?
Local and regional governments’ management of natural resources in rural areas, particularly land and water, underpins food security for the surrounding territory. Local governments can support agricultural production and local economic growth by strengthening transport infrastructure and markets to promote local food chains.
In urban areas, local governments must ensure that people are able to purchase and cook safe, affordable, nutritious food. Urban planning can play a major role in waste reduction and food security by facilitating effective food-related transport and storage, access to clean water and sanitation. They can also promote urban agriculture on both public and private land.
Local governments can use healthcare services and schools to identify and tackle child malnutrition.
Rural local governments can manage collective resources and reform land tenure in ways that protect the rights of the poorer groups, including secondary right holders.
3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.
3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.
3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases.
3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.
3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol.
3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.
3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes.
3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all.
3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.
3.A Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate.
3.B Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and noncommunicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all.
3.C Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States.
3.D Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.
Why does SDG3 matter to local governments?
The provision of clean water and sanitation is essential to lowering infant, child and maternal mortality. Local governments in urban areas must be particularly vigilant as urban rates of child mortality areas are stagnating in many countries. Local governments can address this by slum improvement programmes and by increasing access to basic services for the urban poor. HIV/AIDs are increasingly being understood as a local governance issue.
Urban areas are often the nexus for the spread of HIV/AIDS because of their high population density, transport hubs, and prevalence of vulnerable groups. Local governments can play an important role in identifying local needs, mainstreaming HIV/AIDS activities across departments, and coordinating prevention and response activities.
Many local governments provide education andinformation and services to prevent HIV/AIDS. Local governments can use urban planning and public transport to reduce air pollution, foster healthy lifestyles and prevent deaths from road traffic accidents.
Local governments can contribute to the reduction of deaths caused by water and soil pollution through effective natural resourcemanagement and environmental protection.
4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes
4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education
4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
4.A Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
4.B By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
4.C By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing states
Why does SDG4 matter to local governments?
Education, particularly at primary level, is a direct responsibility of local governments in many countries. This means local governments will be called on to help achieve SDG4.
Local governments are well-placed to identify and tackle the barriers to school attendance in our communities. Local governments can integrate technical and vocational training programmes into local economic development strategies, making sure training is valuable to labour market opportunities into account.
Local governments are particularly well-placed to reach out to vulnerable and marginalized individuals and communities and to ensure they have access to education and training that meet their needs.
5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate
5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decisionmaking in political, economic and public life
5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences
5.A Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
5.B Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women
5.C Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels
Why does SDG5 matter to local governments?
Local governments can act as a model for gender equality and the empowerment of women through non-discriminatory service provision to citizens and fair employment practices.
Local governments are on the frontline of identifying and tackling violence and harmful practices against women. Urban planning (particularly the creation and maintenance of public spaces) and local policing are both essential tools in tackling these issues. Local governments also have a role to play in providing services to women affected by violence. Regional and governments and rural municipalities can identify and tackle barriers to women’s equal access to land control and ownership.
Getting more women into elected office at local level is a top priority in terms of empowering women, both as a goal in its own right, and because local politics is often the first step to regional and national office. Female leaders in local government can challenge gender stereotypes and set an example to young girls. Local governments can mainstream gender equality across all areas of their work in order to tackle the multiple barriers to women’s empowerment.
6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
6.A By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
6.B Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
Why does SDG6 matter to local governments?
Ensuring access to clean water and sanitation is usually a responsibility of local governments, and relies on effective local governance, natural resource management, and urban planning.
The challenges involved can vary hugely at sub-national level, particularly between urban and rural areas. In urban areas, the main challenge is often a lack of access to basic services in informal settlements, or high prices and a lack of quality control of water from private vendors. In rural areas, water may be free, but it may involve long journeys to and from the source, and may be contaminated.
Local governments have a role to play in improving water quality through environmental protection measures and sustainable solid waste management. Integrated water resources management requires horizontal cooperation in planning and environmental policy between municipalities and regions across borders. Local governments are ideally placed to support participatory management of water and sanitation by communities, including slum-dwellers.
7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
7.A By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
7.B By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support
Why does SDG7 matter to local governments?
Local governments are often best placed to identify gaps in access to affordable energy among vulnerable groups in our communities. Local governments can contribute to energy efficiency directly by investing in energy efficient buildings and green energy sources in public institutions (government offices, schools, etc.) and by introducing sustainability criteria into our procurement practices. Such initiatives can have the added advantage of reducing public spending on energy.
In cities, local transport and urban planning policies, as well as new ‘smart city’ technologies, can have a significant impact on energy efficiency and carbon emissions.
8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
8.2 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors
8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
8.4 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
8.10 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
8.A Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
8.B By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
Why does SDG8 matter to local governments?
Local governments can generate growth and employment from the bottom up through local economic development strategies that harness the unique resources and opportunities in our territories.
Local governments can identify children at risk of child labour and work to ensure they attend school. We can also work in partnership with the informal sector to improve their working conditions and social protections, and to encourage formalisation where appropriate.
Local governments can act as an example in providing safe and secure working environments, and in guaranteeing equal pay for equal work. We can also include these practices as part of our procurement criteria when working with the private and third sectors.
Local governments are best placed to work with communities to assess the benefits and costs of tourism in our areas and to develop strategic plans to ensure activity in this sector is sustainable.
9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
9.A Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 18
9.B Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
9.C Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
Why does SDG9 matter to local governments?
Regional and metropolitan governments are particularly important in developing and maintaining infrastructure to serve urban areas and to link them up with their surrounding territories.
Local governments can include the promotion of small-scale industry and start-ups in their local economic development strategies, taking into account local resources, needs and markets.
We can identify gaps in access to ICT and the internet in our communities and take steps to bridge them, particularly through provision in public spaces such as libraries.
10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
10.A Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
10.B Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
10.C By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent
Why does SDG10 matter to local governments?
Local governments are essential to the reduction of inequality within countries. It will be vital to channel resources to local governments in the most deprived areas, and to build our capacities to identify and tackle poverty and exclusion.
Local governments have a particular role to play in political inclusion at local level. We can promote the participation of minority and traditionally underrepresented groups in public consultation processes, and in standing for elected office.
Local governments can implement best practices in terms of equality and non-discrimination in our own institutions and operations, as well as making these criteria in our procurement of goods and services. We also have the responsibility to provide public services in a non-discriminatory way.
Local governments can include progressive local taxation in our fiscal policy and dedicate local budgets to boosting the employment opportunities and income of the poorest households in our communities.
11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
11.A Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
11.B By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
11.C Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local material
Why does SDG11 matter to local governments?
This goal directly calls on mayors and city governments to play our role in the Post-2015 Agenda. The rapid urbanization of many cities in the global south has led to the growth of slums. City governments must develop strategic urban plans to prevent their growth and work with slum-dwellers to improve conditions and provide basic services where slums already exist. Access to affordable housing is also an issue in many of the richest cities in the world; city governments must regulate land and housing markets to guarantee the right to housing to their poorest residents.
City governments have responsibility for promoting the use of public transport in urban areas in order to improve road safety and reduce emissions. It is also our job to provide citizens with safe, green public spaces, such as parks, squares and gardens.
In the context of rapid global urbanization, participatory urban planning is more important than ever if we are to prevent urban sprawl, tackle segregation, and reduce carbon emissions in cities. Sustainable solid waste management, with an emphasis on reuse and recycling, is also vital to the reduction of cities’ environmental impact.
Many cities are treasure troves of cultural heritage.Local governments are vital in defining, identifying and protecting tangible and intangible urban cultural heritage for future generations.
Cities, particularly coastal cities, are already facing the impact of climate change. It is vital that local governments take action to mitigate the effects of climate change and to protect the most vulnerable in our communities from the effects of natural disasters.
Finally, we know that no city is an island. Urban governments must cooperate with our rural and regional counterparts to make sure that cities work in harmony with the rural areas on which they depend for food and natural resources.
12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
12.A Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
12.B Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
12.C Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities
Why does SDG12 matter to local governments?
Local and regional governments can support short supply chains, thereby reducing transport and carbon emissions, through land management, infrastructure, urban planning, education and training, and public markets.
We have a particular role to play in fostering the sustainable consumption and production of energy and water, which we can do using a wide variety of tools, from urban planning to the use of block unit pricing mechanisms.
As consumers of goods and services, local and regional governments can establish procurement criteria that take waste and carbon emissions from potential providers into account.
As the level of government closest to the people, we are well-placed to raise citizens’ awareness of the importance of sustainable production and consumption and to equip them with the knowledge and tools to reduce their environmental footprint.
Local and regional governments should be key partners in developing and implementing tools to monitor the impact of tourism in our jurisdictions, and in working to make sure tourism creates jobs and promotes local culture while limiting waste and carbon emissions
13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
13.A Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
13.B Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities
Why does SDG13 matter to local governments?
Local and regional governments, especially in cities, are often on the frontline of dealing with the effects of climate change. It is vital that our capacities to deal with climate related hazards and natural disasters are strengthened so that we can protect our communities, particularly the most vulnerable.
Local leaders have a history of leading from the bottom up in combatting climate change and of raising awareness at local level.
It is essential that local governments, particularly in the most vulnerable cities, integrate climate change adaptation and mitigation into urban and regional planning to reduce the emissions of our cities and increase their resilience to environmental shocks.
14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
14.A Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
14.B Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
14.C Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want
Why does SDG14 matter to local governments?
Almost 80 per cent of the pollution in the oceans comes from land-based activities, both in coastal areas and further inland.
Many of the world’s largest cities are located on the coast and many coastal cities discharge sewage, industrial effluent and other wastewater directly into their surrounding seas.
However, protecting our oceans and coasts is not just the responsibility of coastal cities. Any urban activity within river basins can affect the oceans, such as the discharge of sewage or industrial wastes into rivers.
Worldwide, two-thirds of the sewage from urban areas is discharged untreated into lakes, rivers and coastal waters. Urban sanitation and solid waste management are essential to reducing coastal zone pollution, as is collaboration between municipalities and at regional level. Coastal cities must develop and implement planning and building regulations to prevent construction in unsuitable areas of the coast.
15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development
15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed
15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
15.A Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems
15.B Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation
15.C Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities
Why does SDG15 matter to local governments?
Local governments’ role as service providers (especially of water, sanitation, and solid waste management), coupled with our ability to incentivize behavioural change in our communities, puts us in a unique position to protect natural resources and habitats.
We are in a unique position to coordinate the partnerships with the private sector and communities that are necessary at local level for the complex task of integrated water resources management.
Local and regional governments should ensure that biodiversity conservation is an integral part of urban planning and development strategy. We should also use our local knowledge to help to implement the ‘polluter pays’ principle on the ground.
Biodiversity conservation often requires cooperation between municipalities across their borders, for example in the creation of transboundary, biodiversity and wildlife corridors.
Community-based participation and management, facilitated by local governments, is a powerful tool to halt biodiversity loss and prevent extinction.
16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime
16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
16.A Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
16.B Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development
Why does SDG16 matter to local governments?
This goal calls on local governments to become more effective and accountable to our citizens. This requires us to tackle corruption and increase the public’s access to information.
For decades, local governments have led the way in experimenting with new forms of participatory decision-making, such as participatory budgeting and planning. This goal calls on us to expand these efforts and become even more responsive to our communities, making sure no group is excluded.
In an increasingly urbanizing world, reducing violence in urban areas will be increasingly important in the quest for global peace and security.
17.1 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
17.2 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
17.3 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
17.4 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
17.5 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
17.6 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
17.7 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
17.8 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
17.10 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
17.11 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
17.12 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access
Policy and institutional coherence
17.13 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
17.15 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development
17.16 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
17.17 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships
Data, monitoring and accountability
17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
17.19 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries
Why does SDG17 matter to local governments?
Local tax and revenue generation must play its part in financing sustainable development. It is at the local level that coherent policies can be developed to address the multiple challenges of poverty reduction and sustainable development.
Local governments are in the ideal position to encourage and facilitate partnerships between public bodies, the private sector and civil society in our communities. Local governments have been collaborating internationally for over one hundred years as part of the international municipal movement. We are ready and willing to take a seat at the global table.
Reliable local data will be an essential tool to monitor sub-national variations in progress and in targeting resources to make sure that noone is left behind.